Prevent neurodegenerative diseases! Drink coffee like this to stay away from dementia and Parkinson’s disease

咖啡與神經系統疾病(neurological diseases)

一般大眾咸認為一口氣喝200毫克咖啡因(約2.5杯咖啡),或一天飲用量不超過400毫克的咖啡因(5杯), 對身體就沒有傷害,且對於腦部神經系統的警覺性和健康、集中注意力具有幫助,並能夠降低憂鬱症風險,以及強化藥物對頭痛的作用等。


在癲癇方面,咖啡的作用目前尚有爭議,在動物模型研究,發現短期服用咖啡因會降低癲癇的閾值,使較易發作,但相反地,在人的研究發現長期服用咖啡/咖啡因,可減少癲癇發作及減低癲癇重積狀態(status epilepticus)時的腦損傷。

咖啡豆醇(kahweol)可以保護神經細胞不被傷害,例如可保護導致巴金森氏症有關的神經毒素6-羥基多巴胺(6-hydroxydopamine;6-OHDA)神經元細胞免於死亡。研究發現咖啡豆醇能經由磷脂酰肌醇3-激酶(phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase;PI3K)和p38 / Nrf2的途徑,誘導血紅素原加氧酶-1(heme oxygenase-1),經由6-羥基衍生的氧化壓力(6-hydroxydopamine-derived oxidative stress),以保護多巴胺神經元。


巴金森氏症(Parkinson’s disease)是發病率僅次於阿茲海默症的神經退化性疾病,病因仍然不明, 但與因大腦黑質腦細胞退化,無法製造足夠的多巴胺(dopamine)有關。




Are Expired Cornflakes Peanut Butter Cookies OK?

corn flake peanut butter cookies
corn flake peanut butter cookies

I was cleaning out my pantry and found a box of cornflakes that had expired a few months ago. I hate to waste food, so I wondered if I could use the cornflakes to make peanut butter cookies. However, I wasn’t sure if it was safe to use expired cornflakes or if it would affect the quality of the cookies.

After doing some research, I learned that using expired ingredients is generally not recommended. While some foods may be safe to eat after their expiration date, it’s better to err on the side of caution and use fresh ingredients whenever possible. Expired cornflakes may not be harmful, but they can affect the texture and crunchiness of biscuits.

If you’re not sure whether an ingredient is safe or not, you can use your senses to help you decide. Look for signs of spoilage, such as mould or an off-colour, and smell the food to see if it has a sour or rancid smell. If the cornflakes look or smell off, it’s best to throw them away.

In the end, I decided to play it safe and use fresh cornflakes to make my peanut butter cookies. I hate wasting food, but I didn’t want to risk making myself or anyone else sick by using expired ingredients.

Recipe for cornflake peanut butter cookies

Here’s a recipe for cornflake peanut butter cookies that you can try:


  • 1 cup creamy peanut butter
  • 1 cup granulated sugar
  • 1 teaspoon vanilla extract
  • 2 eggs
  • 3 cups cornflakes


  1. Preheat the oven to 350°F (180°C).
  2. In a large bowl, cream together the peanut butter and sugar until well combined.
  3. Beat in the vanilla extract and eggs, one at a time, until the mixture is smooth.
  4. Add the cornflakes to the bowl and stir until they are well coated with the peanut butter mixture.
  5. Drop spoonfuls of the mixture onto a baking sheet lined with parchment paper, leaving about 2 inches of space between each cookie.
  6. Bake the cookies in the preheated oven for 12-15 minutes, or until they are lightly golden brown around the edges.
  7. Remove the cookies from the oven and let them cool on the baking sheet for a few minutes before transferring them to a wire rack to cool completely.
  8. Serve and enjoy!

These cookies are a delicious combination of sweet and salty flavors and have a crispy texture from the cornflakes. They’re easy to make and are sure to be a hit with peanut butter lovers!

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No Bake Peanut Butter Cornflake Cookies (5 ingredients!)

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Refined Sugar and Immunity: How Inhibited White Blood Cells Impact Health

Refined sugar to Avoid It

White blood cells are part of the immune system and help the body fight off infections and foreign substances. A study has shown that too much refined sugar reduces the function of white blood cells. Eating 100 grams of refined carbohydrates such as fructose, glucose and sucrose inhibits white blood cells. The ability to phagocytise and eliminate harmful micro-organisms reaches 50% and this immunosuppressive ability lasts for more than 5 hours.

According to experts in nutritional and functional medicine, the normal white blood cell count is generally around 4,500-10,000 per ul. If it is above this range, it may represent a bacterial infection, burns, tissue damage or even leukaemia, commonly known as blood cancer; if it is below this range, it may represent a viral or protozoan infection, aplastic anaemia, splenomegaly, side effects of chemotherapy or certain drug treatments.

An article published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition in 2014 stated that ingesting 100 grams of refined carbohydrates, such as fructose, glucose, sucrose and orange juice, will begin to inhibit the phagocytosis of white blood cells and eliminate harmful microorganisms within 30 minutes, the ability to reach 50%; and this immunosuppressive effect will last for more than 5 hours. Therefore, in order to protect the immune system, the public must limit the intake of refined sugar.

What Is Refined Sugar?

Refined sugar, also known as white sugar or table sugar, is a highly processed and purified form of sugar that is commonly used as a sweetener in foods and drinks. It is derived from sugar cane or sugar beets and undergoes several processing steps to remove impurities and produce the crystalline white substance that is familiar to most people.

The process of refining sugar involves crushing the sugar cane or sugar beets to extract the juice, which is then heated and treated with chemicals such as lime and carbon dioxide to remove any impurities. The resulting liquid is then evaporated and boiled until sugar crystals form, which are then separated from the liquid and dried to produce the final product.

Refined sugar is composed of sucrose, a type of carbohydrate that is easily digested and provides energy to the body. However, it is considered a “empty calorie” as it contains no essential nutrients such as vitamins or minerals. It is often criticized for its high caloric content and potential negative effects on health when consumed in excess, including weight gain, tooth decay, and an increased risk of certain diseases such as type 2 diabetes and heart disease.

Here is a table summarizing the advantages and disadvantages of refined and natural sugars:

AdvantagesRefined SugarNatural Sugar
SweetnessHighLower due to other natural components
PurityVery highMay contain impurities, but not necessarily harmful
SolubilityDissolves easily in liquidsMay not dissolve as easily
AvailabilityWidely availableMay be less readily available
TextureFine, uniform crystalsMay have varying textures
Shelf LifeLong shelf lifeShorter shelf life
ProductionCan be mass-produced at low costMay require more resources to produce
DisadvantagesRefined SugarNatural Sugar
Nutritional ValueEmpty calories, no essential nutrientsMay contain small amounts of vitamins and minerals
Health EffectsMay contribute to obesity, diabetes, and other health issuesMay have less of an impact on health, but excessive consumption can still be problematic
ProcessingHighly processed with chemicalsMinimal processing or no processing
Environmental ImpactProduction can have negative environmental impactsProduction may have less of an impact on the environment
CostLow costMay be more expensive due to production methods and availability

Some natural sugars are better than others

While natural sugars are generally considered healthier than refined sugars, it is important to note that not all natural sugars are created equal in terms of their impact on health.

For example, fruits and vegetables contain natural sugars such as fructose and glucose that are accompanied by a variety of other beneficial nutrients, including fiber, vitamins, and antioxidants. These sugars are absorbed slowly into the bloodstream and can provide sustained energy without causing rapid spikes in blood sugar levels.

On the other hand, highly processed natural sweeteners such as agave nectar or honey may contain high levels of fructose and have a similar impact on the body as refined sugar. They may also lack the beneficial nutrients found in whole fruits and vegetables.

Furthermore, some natural sugars can have a negative impact on dental health. For example, natural sugars found in dried fruits, fruit juice, and even some vegetables can cling to teeth and promote the growth of harmful bacteria, leading to tooth decay and cavities.

Overall, it is important to choose natural sweeteners that are accompanied by other beneficial nutrients and consume them in moderation to support overall health and wellbeing.

How to avoid refined sugar

Avoiding refined sugar can be a challenge since it is present in many processed and packaged foods. However, there are several strategies that can help reduce your intake of refined sugar:

  1. Read food labels: Look for hidden sources of sugar, such as high fructose corn syrup, dextrose, and maltodextrin. Avoid foods that list sugar or a sugar derivative as one of the first ingredients.
  2. Choose whole foods: Opt for whole, unprocessed foods such as fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. These foods contain natural sugars that are accompanied by fiber, vitamins, and minerals.
  3. Use natural sweeteners: Use natural sweeteners like honey, maple syrup, or stevia in moderation to add sweetness to your food and drinks.
  4. Cook from scratch: Prepare your meals at home using fresh ingredients, and avoid processed and packaged foods that often contain added sugars.
  5. Be mindful of beverages: Many beverages, including soda, sports drinks, and juice, are high in sugar. Choose water or unsweetened beverages instead.
  6. Gradually reduce your intake: Gradually reduce your intake of refined sugar over time to allow your taste buds to adjust to less sweet flavors. This can help you develop a preference for less sweet foods and drinks.

By implementing these strategies, you can reduce your intake of refined sugar and support your overall health and wellbeing.